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Ford 5900 Tractor Troubleshooting

The Ford 5900 is a two-wheel drive utility tractor. This model was manufactured from 1985 to 1993. The Ford 5900 tractor is equipped with a 256 cubic inches (4.2 L) Ford 4-cylinder direct injection liquid-cooled diesel engine.

The engine has a cylinder bore of 4.41" (112 mm), piston stroke of 4.21" (107 mm), and rated power of 73 hp (54.4 kW). The sliding gear transmission includes a dry clutch and gearbox with 8 forward and 2 reverse gears. The maximum travel speed (forward/reverse): 14.5 mph (23.3 km/h) and 7 mph (11.3 km/h).

The open center hydraulic system includes a gear pump with fluid flow rate of 6 gal/min (22.7 l/min). The hydraulic system fluid capacity is 14 gal (53 l). The Ford 5900 is equipped with a hydrostatic power steering, disc brakes, 7.50x16 front tires, and 16.9x30 rear tires. The wheelbase is 87.5 inches (2220 mm).

Engine Troubleshooting
Engine won't start or hard to start
Fuel filter clogging - Change filter element
Closed fuel cock - Open fuel on-off cock to inject fuel
Fuel lines leaking air - Tighten clamps, change faulty pipes
Dirty or damaged injectors - Test fuel injectors and change if necessary
Fuel injection pump malfunctioning - Change or repair the pump
Bad cylinder compression - Check and replace worn parts
Diesel shuts off during operation
Coolant temperature is low - Warm up engine to required temperature
Fuel lines leaking air - Tighten clamps, change faulty pipes
Uneven fuel injections - Repair or adjustment
Fuel filter clogging - Filter maintenance required
Dirty or faulty injectors - Service or change fuel injectors
Diesel starts and immediately shuts off
Fuel injection pump out of timing - Fuel pump timing settings need to be corrected
Clogged fuel filter element - Replace the filter element
Clogged or defective injector nozzles - Change or clean injector nozzles
Fuel injection pump is defective - Install a new fuel pump or repair
Dirty air cleaner - Install new cleaner element or replace it
Engine stops at low idle speed
Wrong adjustment of low idle speed - Adjust low idling as recommended
Fuel injection pump is damaged - Replacement or repair required
Clogged or damaged injector nozzles - Service or replace nozzles if required
Excessive valve clearance - Correct valve clearance needs to be set
Engine overheats
Low engine coolant - Top up coolant. Inspect the system for leaks
Cooling system components are failed or system is dirty - Flush cooling system or change faulty components
Not enough engine oil - Check and refill engine oil
Damaged fan belt or incorrect belt tension - Adjust as required or change belt
Thermostat malfunction - Check and change if necessary
Reduced engine power
Fuel injectors are damaged or dirty - Clean or replace fuel injectors
Insufficient fuel injection pressure - Repair or replace injection pump
Air filter is dirty - Change or service air filter element
Oil filter is dirty - Replace or clean engine oil filter element
Engine is under excessive load - Change to lower gear or reduce load
Valve clearance is out of adjustment - Correct valve clearance needs to be set
Low idle speed setting is not correct - Adjust low idle speed
Fuel hoses or pipes are dirty - Service fuel hoses and pipes
Low engine compression: Leaking or broken valves - Change the valves
Engine knocks or noises
Timing of fuel injection pump is not adjusted - Check the fuel injection pump timing setting
Dirty or defective injector nozzles - Change injector nozzles
Engine oil level is insufficient - Need to add engine oil
Engine not warmed up - Warm up engine as required
Crankshaft or main bearings wear - Replace crankshaft or bearings
Broken or defective piston rings - Install new piston rings
Flywheel mounting screws are loose - Tighten the screws
Engine oil consumption is too high
Oil leaking: Gaskets or seals can be faulty - Defective components must be replaced
Wrong oil viscosity - Fill up with the proper oil viscosity
Seized or wear piston rings - Replace piston rings
Valve guides or stems are damaged - Valves need to be changed
Pistons or cylinder liners are worn - Check pistons and liners, change as required

Electrical System Troubleshooting
Battery cannot be charged
Bad cell in battery - Battery replacement required
Damaged battery electrical wire harness - Inspect electrical wires for damage, change or repair
Corroded or loose terminals and cables - Service or tighten battery cables and terminals
Belt is worn or belt tension is incorrectly adjusted - Adjust belt tension as required or replace belt
Starter turning slow
Battery capacity is low - Low battery charging, charge as required
Battery runs out quickly - Service or replace the battery
Battery cable harness failure - Check battery electrical cable for defects, replace or repair
Battery terminals and cables are corroded or loose - Tighten or clean terminals and cables
Starter will not work
Battery voltage is low - Charge the battery
Drained or faulty battery - Need to charge or replace the battery
Starter motor is faulty - Starter needs to be replaced
Cables harness is improperly connected or disconnected - Inspect cables harness and reconnect it properly

Transmission Troubleshooting
Gears are hard to shift
Incorrectly adjusted or damaged clutch - Clutch adjustment or replacement required
Damaged or loose gear shift linkage - Service or change the shift linkage
Shift forks are worn or damaged - Change defective shift forks
Gearshift mechanism is worn out - Repair or replace worn components if required
Low transmission fluid pressure
Oil level is insufficient - Fill the transmission housing to proper oil level
Clogged transmission fluid filter element (if fitted) - Replace or clean transmission fluid filter
Relief valve is faulty - Replace relief valve
Transmission makes noise
Bearings are worn or broken - Faulty bearings should be changed
Oil level is low - Check transmission oil level and add oil as required
Dirty transmission fluid - Fill up with fresh transmission fluid
Damaged gears or improper backlash - Change damaged gears or adjust backlash properly
Damaged or worn shift forks - Change defective shift forks
Transmission fluid leaking
Broken gaskets or seals - Install new seal or gaskets
Cracked transmission case - Install a new transmission case

Hydraulics Troubleshooting
Hydraulic system overheats
Incorrect hydraulic pressure adjustments - Adjust correctly
Defective or misadjusted main relief valve - Set up or change the relief valve
Contaminated hydraulic oil - Change hydraulic oil
Hydraulic system sucks air - Inspect the pump seals, suction line, and fittings
Hydraulic oil pressure is low
Not enough hydraulic oil in the system - Fill the hydraulic system with oil
Hydraulic fluid filter clogging - Service the hydraulic filter or change if required
Hydraulic pump not working - Check pump capacity and change if necessary
Damaged or incorrect adjusted hydraulic control valve - Replace or set correctly
Defective hydraulic cylinder - Inspect cylinder components for wear or damage and change if required
Leakage in hydraulic pipes - Identify leaks in the system and repair it
3-point hitch raises slowly or won't raise
Hydraulic fluid level is low - Fill the hydraulic system with oil
Cold oil in hydraulic system - Wait for oil to warm up
Hydraulic oil filter element clogging - Service the hydraulic filter or change if required
Defective hydraulic pump - Test pump flow rate and replace pump if required
Main relief valve incorrect adjustment or failure - Adjust or change relief valve
Hydraulic control valve is not set properly or defective - Replace or adjust correctly
Hydraulic cylinder malfunction - Inspect the hydraulic cylinder parts for damage or wear and replace if required
Damaged or disconnected suction pipe - Connect or replace
Hitch not dropping or hitch drops slowly
Hydraulic control valve is faulty or out of adjustment - Change or set correctly
Hydraulic cylinder is defective - Check cylinder components for wear or damage and change if necessary
Damaged hitch rock shaft - Install a new shaft
Internal mechanical malfunction with hitch - Replace damaged or worn hitch components
Jerky lifting or lowering of 3-point hitch
Air leaks in hydraulic system - Check the pump seals, suction pipe, and fittings
Dirty hydraulic fluid - The fluid must be changed
Hydraulic pump is defective - Check the pump capacity and replace pump if required
Hydraulic spool valve is faulty or out of adjustment - Adjust correctly or change
Hydraulic cylinder malfunction - Inspect the cylinder components for damage or wear and change if required

Steering System Troubleshooting
Steering is difficult
Worn or improperly mounted steering column - Mount the steering column properly or change it
Air leaks in steering system - Bleed air from system
Steering filter is plugged - Replace steering filter element
Not adjusted toe-in - Check and adjust toe-in
Tires are not properly inflated - Inflate tires as required
Steering pump failure - Check the hydraulic steering pump and change if necessary
Worn or damaged power steering control valve - Inspect and replace as required
Defective or stuck relief valve - Replace or service relief valve
Steering fluid level is low - Check fluid level and add steering fluid as required
Steering system oil leakage - Tighten the steering hose and line joints
Excessive free play of steering wheel
Worn steering column coupling or shaft - Replace faulty component
Defective or worn power steering control valve - Repair or change the steering control valve
Damaged hydraulic steering pump - Steering pump needs to be repaired or replaced
Faulty or worn steering tie-rod ends or linkage - Change damaged component
Tractor pulls to left or right
Improper tire pressure - Check the pressure and inflate tires as required
Toe-in adjustment is incorrect - Adjust toe-in properly
Steering linkage or tie-rod ends are defective - Change damaged component
Worn or defective steering control valve - Repair or change the steering control valve
Steering cylinder is damaged - Change or repair hydraulic steering cylinder
Incorrectly adjusted or worn front hub bearings - Change or adjust the bearings properly




Farm Tractors Technical Specifications
JD 1026R JD 3650 JD 6400 JD 7810
FORD 1320 FORD 2810 FORD 3930 FORD 5600
MF 250 MF 690 MF 3060 MF 6180
NH TC48DA NH M100 NH T7550 NH 8560
CASE IH 495 CASE IH 1255XL CASE IH 2140 CASE IH 2294