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John Deere 2510 Troubleshooting

The John Deere 2510 is a two-wheel drive row-crop tractor. This model was manufactured between 1965 and 1968. The John Deere 2510 tractor is powered by 202.7 cubic inches four-cylinder valve-in-head diesel engine with a maximum power of 53 Hp (39.3 kW) at 2500 rev/min, or 180.4 cubic inches 4-cylinder 8-valve gasoline engine.

The John Deere 2510 is fitted with two types of transmission. Type 1: 8x2 Syncro range partially synchronized transmission. Type 2: Full Power shift transmission with 8 forward and 4 reverse gears.

The maximum forward speed - 17.5 mph (28.1 km/h), max. reverse speed - 4.7 mph (7.5 km/h). The closed center constant pressure hydraulic system used a piston pump with rated capacity of 12.4 gpm (47 lpm). The main relief pressure is 155 bar (2250 psi). The John Deere 2510 is equipped with 6.00x16 front tyres and 13.6x38 rear tyres. The wheelbase is 90 inches (2280 mm). The tractor is compatible with a John Deere 48 front end loader with a lifting capacity to maximum height of 2400 lbs (1088 kg), and breakout force of 3600 lbs (1632 kg).

Diesel Engine Troubleshooting
Engine won't start or hard to start
Plugged fuel filter - Install new filter element
Closed fuel supply valve - Open supply valve to inject fuel
Fuel-line is leaking air - Retighten clamps, replace defective pipes
Dirty or faulty injectors - Inspect fuel injectors and replace if necessary
Fuel injection pump failure - Rebuild or replace pump
Bad cylinder compression - Check and change damaged parts
Diesel stalls while running
Coolant temperature is low - Warm up the engine
Water, dirt, or air in fuel system - Drain, flush, fill, and bleed system
Bad fuel injection - Check and adjust
Dirty fuel filter element - Clean the filter element
Clogged or damaged injectors - Service or change fuel injectors
Diesel starts but then stalls
Unadjusted fuel injection pump timing - Adjust the fuel injection pump timing correctly
Fuel filter plugging - Replace the filter element
Clogged or defective injector nozzles - Install new set of properly balanced nozzles
Fuel injection pump is faulty - Repair or replace injection pump
Clogged air cleaner element - Air cleaner maintenance required
Engine stops when idle
Too low idle RPM - Adjust low idling as recommended
Fuel injection pump is damaged - Install a new pump or rebuild
Fuel injector nozzles are clogged or faulty - Change or clean injector nozzles
Valve clearance is wrong - Adjust to proper valve clearance
Engine overheating
Engine coolant is insufficient - Fill the cooling system. Inspect the system for leaks
Cooling system is dirty or cooling components are failed - Replace faulty parts or flush the cooling system
Low engine oil level - Add oil to the engine crankcase
Worn fan belt or incorrect belt tension - Adjust belt tension correctly or change it
Defective thermostat - Test thermostat opening temperature, replace as required
Poor engine power
Faulty or dirty injectors - Clean or replace fuel injectors
Fuel injection pressure is incorrect - Adjust to proper pressure
Air filter element is dirty - Install new filter element or replace it
Oil filter element clogging - Clean or replace engine oil filter element
Diesel engine overloaded - Change to lower gear or reduce load
Valve out of adjustment - Have it adjusted
Low idle speed setting is incorrect - Need to adjust idle speed
Fuel pipes or hoses clogging - Clean fuel system pipes and hoses
Engine compression is low: Valves are broken or leaking - Replace the valves as required
Engine knocking sound or abnormal noise
Unadjusted fuel injection pump timing - Fuel pump timing settings need to be corrected
Fuel injector nozzles fault - Change or clean injector nozzles
Engine oil level low - Check oil level and add oil as required
Engine is cold - Normalize the temperature by warming up the engine
Crankshaft or main bearings failure - Have bearings or crankshaft replaced
Broken or defective piston rings - Piston rings need to be replaced
The flywheel to crankshaft bolts are loose - Tighten bolts as required
High oil consumption
External oil leaks: Defective seals or gaskets - Replace to repair leaks
Wrong oil viscosity - Use oil of correct viscosity
Piston rings are stuck or worn - Piston rings need to be replaced
Valve guides or stems are damaged - Replace defective valves
Pistons or cylinder liners are scored - Check liners and pistons, install new components as required

Electrical System Troubleshooting
Battery won’t charge
Defective battery - Battery replacement required
Bad battery wiring harness - Inspect wiring for malfunctions, replace or repair
Battery cables and terminals are loose or corroded - Service or tighten battery terminals and cables
Worn belt or improperly adjusted belt tension - Change belt or properly adjust belt tension
Starter turning slow
Low battery voltage - Battery needs to be recharged
Battery is not holding charge - Service charging system or install new battery
Damaged battery cable harness - Check electrical cables for damage, repair or replace
Battery terminals and cables are corroded or loose - Tighten or clean terminals and cables
Starter doesn't crank
Battery capacity is low - Charge the battery
Discharged or faulty battery - Need to charge or replace the battery
Starter motor is damaged - Starter needs to be replaced
Improperly connected or disconnected cables - Check battery cables and connect properly

Transmission Troubleshooting
Gear hard to shift
Failure or improper clutch adjustment - Adjust clutch or change if necessary
Damaged or loose gear shift linkage - Change defective shift linkage
Worn or damaged shift forks - Change defective shift forks
Gearshift mechanism is worn out - Repair or replace worn components if required
Low transmission pressure
Lack of transmission fluid supply - Check and refill the transmission fluid
Dirty transmission oil filter (if fitted) - Replace or service transmission oil filter
Relief valve is faulty - Replace relief valve as required
Transmission noises
Broken or worn bearings - Replace the bearings
Lack of transmission fluid supply - Fill up the transmission fluid
Transmission oil contamination - Change transmission oil
Improper backlash or damaged gears - Replace gears or set backlash correctly
Damaged or worn shift forks - Shift forks need to be replaced
External oil leaks
Seals or gaskets are damaged - Gaskets or seal replacement required
Cracked transmission housing - Housing needs to be replaced

Hydraulics Troubleshooting
Excessive hydraulic system heat
Incorrect hydraulic system pressure setting - Change the pressure settings
Main relief valve is damaged or adjusted improperly - Replace or set up the relief valve
Dirty hydraulic fluid - The fluid must be changed
Air in hydraulic system - Inspect the suction line, pump seals, and fittings
Low hydraulic fluid pressure
Hydraulic oil level is insufficient - Add oil to the hydraulic system
Hydraulic oil filter clogging - Clean the hydraulic filter or install new filter element
Defective hydraulic pump - Flow-rate hydraulic pump and replace pump if necessary
Hydraulic spool valve is faulty or out of adjustment - Set properly or replace
Hydraulic cylinder is faulty - Check cylinder components for damage or wear and change if necessary
Hydraulic piping leaks - Inspect hydraulic system for leaks and repair it
3-point hitch lifts slowly or won't lift
Lack of hydraulic oil - Add oil to the hydraulic system
Hydraulic fluid is too cold - Allow fluid to warm
Hydraulic fluid filter clogging - Replace hydraulic filter element or service if necessary
Defective hydraulic pump - Test pump performance and replace pump if necessary
Main relief valve is damaged or adjusted improperly - Adjust relief valve or change if required
Hydraulic spool valve block is not set properly or defective - Set correctly or replace
Hydraulic cylinder is faulty - Check cylinder components for damage or wear and change if necessary
Suction pipe is damaged or loose - Repair or change
Hitch does not lower or lowers very slowly
Hydraulic control valve is not set properly or defective - Replace or adjust correctly
Hydraulic cylinder failure - Check the hydraulic cylinder parts for damage or wear and replace if necessary
Damaged lift arm shaft - Replace the shaft
Defective mechanical parts of the hitch - Replace defective or worn hitch parts
Jerky lifting or lowering of 3-point hitch
Air enters in hydraulic system - Inspect the pump seals, suction line, and fittings
Hydraulic oil contamination - Change the oil
Hydraulic pump not working - Test the pump flow rate and install new pump if required
Hydraulic control valve is not set properly or defective - Adjust correctly or replace
Hydraulic cylinder is broken - Check cylinder components for damage or wear and change if necessary

Steering System Troubleshooting
Steering wheel is hard to turn
Steering column is broken or incorrectly fitted - Steering column needs to be refit correctly or replaced
Aeration in steering system - Bleed the system of air
Improper toe-in - Adjust toe-in correctly
Tire pressure is improper - Inflate the tires properly
Damaged hydraulic steering pump - Replace or repair steering pump
Steering valve assembly is worn or defective - Inspect and replace as required
Relief valve is seized or defective - Flush relief valve or change if necessary
Lack of steering fluid - Need to add steering oil
Steering system oil leak - Retighten steering line and hose connections
Steering wheel free play is excessive
Steering column coupling or shaft is worn - Change defective part
Damaged or worn steering valve assembly - Inspect and replace as required
Hydraulic steering pump is defective - Replace or repair steering pump
Steering tie-rod ends or linkage are defective - Replace damaged part
Front wheels wander to left or right
Tires are incorrectly inflated - Inflate as required
Incorrect toe-in adjustment - Adjust toe-in wheels properly
Steering linkage or tie-rod ends are defective - Change failed component
Steering valve assembly has wear or malfunction - Inspect and change as required
Steering valve cylinder failure - Repair or replace hydraulic steering valve cylinder
Defective or improperly adjusted front hub bearings - Adjust properly or replace bearings




Farm Tractors Technical Specifications
JD 1026R JD 3650 JD 6400 JD 7810
FORD 1320 FORD 2810 FORD 3930 FORD 5600
MF 250 MF 690 MF 3060 MF 6180
NH TC48DA NH M100 NH T7550 NH 8560
CASE IH 495 CASE IH 1255XL CASE IH 2140 CASE IH 2294